Ke hoʻomohala ʻana i nā ʻenehana lumi maʻemaʻe

ʻO ka lumi hoʻomaʻemaʻe e pili ana i ka hemo ʻana o nā hunaahi, ka ea ʻino, nā bacteria a me nā mea haumia ʻē aʻe i loko o ka lewa i loko o kekahi wahi, a me ka kaohi o ka wela o loko, ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe, kaomi o loko, ka wikiwiki o ka ea a me ka ea, ka leo, ka haʻalulu, nā kukui, a me nā kūpaʻa. uila ma waena o kekahi mau pono, a hāʻawi ʻia kahi lumi i hoʻolālā ʻia.

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Ke kumu hana maʻemaʻe: Kahe ʻana o ka ea → ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe mua → ka ʻāpana hoʻomaʻemaʻe → ka ʻāpana hoʻomehana → ka ʻāpana anuanu o ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe → ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻana o ka ea fan → paipu → ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe → ʻo ka puhi ʻana i loko o ka lumi hoʻihoʻi i nā pale uila → hoʻomaʻemaʻe mua e hana hou i ka mea i luna aʻe hiki i ke kaʻina hana ke hoʻokō i ke kumu o ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe.

I ka waena waena o 1960, lumi maʻemaʻeulu aʻe i nā ʻāpana ʻoihana like ʻole i United States. ʻAʻole hoʻohana wale ʻia ia i ka ʻoihana koa, akā hoʻolaha ʻia hoʻi i ka uila, optics, bearings liʻiliʻi, nā motika liʻiliʻi, nā kiʻi paʻi kiʻi photosensitive, nā reagents kemika ultra-puree a me nā ʻenehana ʻoihana ʻē aʻe.
Ua hana nui ka ʻenehana a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā hana i ka paipai ʻana.
I nā makahiki 1970 mua, ua hoʻomaka ka nānā ʻana o ke kūkulu ʻana i kahi lumi maʻemaʻe i ka ʻoihana olakino, lāʻau lapaʻau, meaʻai a me nā meaola biochemical. Ma waho o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, ua hoʻohui pū kekahi mau ʻāina ʻē aʻe i mua e like me Iapana, Kelemania, Pelekane, Palani, Kuikilana, ka Soviet Union ma mua, a me ka Netherlands, i mea nui a hoʻomohala ikaika i ka ʻenehana maʻemaʻe.
ʻO nā makahiki 1960 mua ka pae mua o kā China hoʻomōhala ʻenehana ulu, ma kahi o ʻumi mau makahiki ma hope ma mua o nā ʻāina ʻē. Ma Kina, he manawa paʻakikī loa ia. Ma kekahi ʻaoʻao, ua hala ʻekolu makahiki o nā pōpilikia kūlohelohe a nāwaliwali kāna kumu waiwai. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻaʻohe ona pilina pololei me nā ʻāina kiʻekiʻe i ka ʻepekema a me ka ʻenehana i ka honua a ʻaʻole i hiki ke kiʻi i ka ʻikepili ʻepekema a me ʻenehana kūpono, ka ʻike a me nā laʻana. Ma lalo o kēia mau kūlana paʻakikī, e kia ana i nā pono o ka mīkini pono, nā pono lele a me nā pono uila, ua hoʻomaka nā limahana ʻenehana maʻemaʻe o Kina i kā lākou huakaʻi ʻoihana ponoʻī.

Inā he mau nīnau a makemake paha e pili ana i ka lumi maʻemaʻe, e ʻoluʻolu kāhea iā mā ,ou, mākou E-mail: xuebl@tekmax.com.cn   Ke kakali nei i ka hoʻolohe ʻana mai iā ʻoe.


Ka manawa Post: Jul-27-2021